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Back-End Web Development: Foundation of Web Applications

If you’re not a developer or engineer, topics like front-end development vs. back-end development might be tough to wrap your brain around. Pile on all of the back-end frameworks, programming languages, APIs, and libraries that developers use to build apps, and things can get pretty confusing.

The good news? You don't need to know how to write code to comprehend the fundamentals of back-end development and the many parts of a typical "software stack." No matter if you're the CEO, a recruiting manager, a salesman for a software firm, or a product manager, knowing your way around it is useful.

To help you become a pro in all things back-end web development, read this blog.

In this blog, you will not only learn about what is back-end development and its programming language, but you will also about back-end development tools and technologies.

Let's get started

What is back-end web development?

Back-end development is the process of creating the server-side logic that runs the background operations of websites and apps. Every piece of code needed to create the database, server, and application is contained in it. 

A back-end web developer may have the skills you need to launch your next online project, from database migrations to API integrations to setting up the back-end technologies that power a website. 

Backend developers are mostly concerned with the operation of a website. The technology they work on is never directly visible to consumers; instead, they produce code that concentrates on the functionality and logic driving the application they're working on. 

In addition to other tasks, backend programmers may be required to create libraries, business procedures, data architecture, and APIs. They may also write code to interact with databases.

Front-end vs back-end development

You need to grasp the front end and how the two work together in order to comprehend the back end, commonly known as the "server-side development." The front end, sometimes referred to as client-side programming, is where users view and interact with everything. 

On the other hand, the back end is handled by the server (on-site or in the cloud) and databases. The main the distinction is that front-end programmers construct and design the user interface, deciding how the website appears to users, whereas back-end developers build how a website runs.

Back-end web development creates the core code that enables websites to process user actions on the front end and return accurate information.

Both are necessary for the other to function—you need the back end to make the front end function, and you need the front end to allow users to access and interact with the website.

Since back-end languages are typically more technical than front-end languages, back-end developers typically make more money than front-end developers.

Also Read: The Software Development Life Cycle: A Step-by-Step Overview



An object-oriented general-purpose programming language called Java was created with cross-platform interoperability in mind. Java programs may be run on any computer that has the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) installed. 

It is among the most widely used programming languages worldwide. JVM, or Java Virtual Machine, is what gives Java its versatility. With many back-end developer languages, compiling a program creates code that may run differently if the computers it’s run on are different. 

Java doesn't have a problem with this because of the JVM. No matter where the code was built, the Java Virtual Machine functions as an intermediate layer that can run code on any machine.

Java backend technologies can be used to achieve a lot of objectives, including these and more: Android mobile application development, website development, image processing, database connectivity, etc. 


PHP Development

PHP is the most popular back-end web language. In addition to having a large codebase and a long history of open-source developer community support, PHP has a short learning curve and is well suited for use as the back end of websites. 

If you've ever used WordPress to create a personal website, PHP was likely running the back end. PHP powers 78.2% of all websites whose back end programming language we know.

For those who are just getting started, learning PHP is a great idea for several reasons:

  • Because it is more error-tolerant, you can compile and run a program up until the point where something goes wrong.
  • Due to the sizeable community and tool support, the language has a wealth of resources available to it. Make sure you're studying from an updated lesson because the language is updated frequently.



The programming language Ruby is the web application foundation for the language Ruby on Rails (or Ruby). Ruby is a general-purpose dynamically typed programming language that has a reputation for increasing programmer efficiency.

It is renowned for its capacity to include metaprogramming (code that may change while it is running) into programs and for supporting procedural, functional, and object-oriented programming paradigms.

With the help of a few tools in Ruby on Rails, you can easily construct simple jobs (like a simple blog with just one line of code). Ruby requires less backend labor, allowing programmers to quickly construct and run apps. 

In that it's great for prototyping, it is comparable to Python. Due of this, the popularity of Ruby increased in the early 2000s but has subsequently decreased. Ruby is open-source, meaning it may be changed and expanded upon. With Ruby, you can build web applications, and mobile applications, and can also create prototypes.



Python is a general-purpose programming language with a strong data processing library. Python's simple syntax and short code length boost programmers' efficiency while developing back-end applications. It is the programming language that has expanded the quickest. 

The flexible back end programming language is utilized for both desktop and web development. Like with Java, there are lots of tutorials and guidelines available, making it one of the more accessible back-end languages for those just starting out. Those who write with Python have commended it for its “elegant,” “readable,” and “beautiful” code on Stack Overflow.

Back-end tools & technology

Front-end development is primarily influenced by JavaScript, HTML, CSS, and various front-end frameworks using these languages, whereas back-end web development has a much wider range of possibilities.

To make things easier, we'll divide the server side into four main "software stack" components: the server, the database, the operating system, and the software.

Here is some more information on each of these backend elements.


Out of the four components of your back-end stack, whether it is on-premises or in the cloud, the server is the network's engine. These robust machines offer the shared resources that networks need to operate, including file storage, security and encryption, databases, email, and web services. 

Once you’ve gotten the basics down regarding on-site servers, broaden your understanding with a look at virtualization, how servers become supplied to house various apps, and containerization, another method servers provision their operating systems out to house segmented programs.


Databases are the "brains" of a website, which is how they are referred to in this context. When you ask a website for something, whether you're looking for a product in an online store or looking for hotels in a particular state, the database is in charge of accepting your request, retrieving the information, and sending it back to the website. 

Data can be added and changed when users interact with databases through a website or application. Whether a user is writing articles to a CMS, uploading photographs to a social network profile, or updating their customer information, they may alter information in a database from the browser.

This concise guide to modern database technology will explain how databases operate, go through terminology you should be familiar with, compare SQL and NoSQL, and show you how to choose the right database for your online application.


In essence, middleware refers to any server-side software that links an application's front end and back end. Imagine middleware as the plumbing for your website—it sends requests and replies back and forth from your application to the server or database. 

Similar to plumbing in a house, middleware is invisible but necessary, and it must be dependable and consistently perform the tasks that are required of it.

Middleware (server-side software) establishes a middle layer between the app(s) and the network, including the server, database, operating system, and others, to enable client-server communication. 

Regardless of whether it is the presentation layer or the business layer, middleware may be multi-layered and arranged into several tiers of a website. Web APIs can also be used in this area of the stack to act as a link between the business layer and the presentation layer.

Additionally, middleware enables communication between on-premises and cloud applications and offers functions like data integration and error handling. Good middleware may also enhance IT efficiency and enable things like user interaction, business process management, content management, authentication, and more. 

We'll then discuss a few of the programming languages and frameworks that are employed in the creation of various kinds of middleware, APIs, and server-side software.


These days, it's impossible to discuss the back-end element of an application without mentioning APIs (application programming interfaces) and the smooth connections they provide between software, apps, databases, and services. 

Using APIs, which frequently replace more complex programming to enable software communication and data transmission, the majority of server-side software designs are created.

In conclusion, Back-End Web Development forms the backbone of web applications, playing a pivotal role in ensuring their functionality, security, and scalability. It involves data management, server-side logic, and rigorous security measures. Scalability is crucial to accommodate growing user bases, and the development of well-documented APIs facilitates seamless integration with other systems. 

Continuous performance optimization, maintenance, and testing are vital for the long-term success and reliability of web applications. The back-end developer's work is essential to building a strong foundation that empowers web applications to deliver seamless and secure experiences to users.


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